Watertown, Connecticut is “…specially noted for its thrifty farmers and Devonshire cattle,” said one local farmer in the Annual Report of the Connecticut State Board of Agriculture in 1884-1885.
In the late 1800s, my great grandfather Elnathan “Nate” Black, also known as E.M. Black, exhibited his Devonshire, or Devon, cattle at the Watertown Fair and other regional fairs. He raised his cattle on the rocky land of Birch Farm on Northfield Road. I found several newspaper clippings noting his prize cows.
Also known as the Devon or North Devon cow, the farm animal was brought to America in the 17th century by early English colonists. The Devon cow is one of the few cows valued by farmers for three uses: milk, meat and draft, or to pull a cart or plow. A medium-sized cow, its coat is a deep glossy red and its horns are white with black tips.
Today the Devon cow is among the most endangered cattle breeds. In 2021, the U.S. Post Office issued a set of Heritage Breeds Forever stamps of farm animals that were around before the agricultural industry became industrialized and began breeding animals for productivity.
One of the USPS heritage breeds is the Milking Devon Cow — the same prize cattle Nate Black raised on Northfield Road over 100 years ago.
White clover and goldenrod grew plentifully in Washington CT in the late 1900s, providing nectar for Robert Black’s apiary on Blackville Road.
Robert (1825-1905) was my second great grand uncle and the brother of my second great grandfather James Black. He emigrated with his family from Ireland to Washington CT in 1849. He was around 24 years old. The whole family began farming.
Three of his brothers, Gustavus, William and James, went to fight in the Civil War in 1862, but Robert already owned a business in Washington. In 1860, he had bought a foundry and hired a blacksmith. (See my earlier post on the foundry). It was on Blackville Road across from brother John M. Black’s farm.
Robert married Phebe A. Gunn (1840-1922) from an established Washington family in 1856, and they had two sons and two daughters. Son Ernest and daughter Mabel died as infants.
According to an 1893 newspaper article, Robert started his apiary around 1868 when a swarm of bees was given to him. The apiary grew to contain 30,000 bees that produced some 260 to 270 pounds of honey in a good year. He also sold equipment to beekeepers in the area.
The success of Robert’s honey crop relied on the weather, as a newspaper reporter recounts. A year with early frosts and dry weather left his bees without white clover. But he looked forward to the golden rod in the fall. He packaged the honey and sold it.
Another year, and his honey production was better.
At the age of 79 in 1904, Robert decided to sell his foundry and agricultural shop, which provided equipment to farmers, including beekeepers.
Robert died the following year at 80. He is buried with his family in the Washington Cemetery on the Green.
This week I sat at my kitchen table, which I inherited from my grandmother Mabel Black Gould, and watched a pair of Goldfinches at my backyard bird feeder. It’s the same maple table that squeezed into her breakfast room at 92 Monte Vista Avenue, where she used sit and keep her eye on the birds drinking from the marble bird bath in her backyard.
Mabel, or Mama as her grandchildren called her, always had a pair of binoculars handy, as well as several bird guides in the corner bookcase. Her husband, Howard, must have shared her interest, because in the photograph below, he is the one wearing the family binoculars.
I inherited her hefty encyclopedia, Birds of America (Garden City Publishing: Garden City, NY 1936), edited by T. Gilbert Pearson and illustrated by Louis Agassiz Fuertes, which sat in her breakfast room bookcase.
Her copy of A Field Guild To The Birds, copyright 1930, by Tory Peterson, was even more worn-out, nearly falling apart from over-use. She could identify any bird that happened into her yard.
My mother Doris Gould Malaspina inherited her mother’s knowledge of birds. She still watches for hummingbirds at her feeder in Atlanta.
In the 1950s, Mabel was president of the Ridgewood Audubon Society, a chapter of the national non-profit dedicated to protecting birds and their habitats. The Ridgewood chapter no longer exists.
She led meetings and nature walks, and fundraisers for natural areas. In 1971, she personally donated a pair of wood ducks to the Bergen County Wildlife Center in Wyckoff.
World War II brought both hardship and opportunities. Like many families, the Goulds on Monte Vista Avenue pitched in to support the war effort. Janet Gould (deFelice), born in 1918 and the eldest daughter of Dr. J. Howard and Mabel Gould, volunteered with the American Red Cross in Europe. She served as a hospital social worker with the U.S. Army’s 304th Station Hospital, a mobile hospital behind the front lines in several European countries. Patients included German prisoners of war.
Janet’s connection with the Red Cross began when she was a child in Bayonne NJ. A letter provided by her son Tom shows her generous spirit and her early interest in helping people in need. She was about 12-years-old at the time.
After she earned a Master’s degree from the New York School of Social Work in 1942, now the Columbia University School of Social Work, she worked for the American Red Cross in Jamaica, Queens. In 1945, she chose to go to Europe, where the war was well underway, with the Red Cross.
She wasn’t the only member of the family to go overseas. Janet’s youngest brother Robert “Bob” Howard Gould, born in 1924, joined the U.S. Navy after studying Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.).
A lifelong sailor, and a handyman who could fix anything, Robert trained as a radio technician with the Navy in Chicago for a year, before being sent to the Pacific.
Always a prolific letter writer, he sent a postcard to his younger sister Doris, saying that he was enjoying himself in Chicago.
Robert served on the USS Estes in the Seventh Fleet in the Pacific. The ship launched from San Francisco in July 1945.
Almost three years after he enlisted, Robert returned home in June 1948.
I have a piggy bank and a bag of coins that he picked up when the ship stopped in Shanghai and other Chinese ports. Robert’s love for boats and sailing remained strong. In later years, he sailed across the Atlantic Ocean, up and down the East Coast and, in the 1980’s, built his own sailboat from his home in Lexington, Massachusetts.
Robert’s older brother John Mead Gould, born in 1922 and also an MIT alumnus, attended medical school during the war.
He graduated from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in March 1946. Graduates were immediately commissioned to the Army or Navy. John served as a medical officer in the Navy.
Settling in California, John worked for many years as a thoracic surgeon. He also served on board the SS Hope, the peacetime Navy medical ship, on its first voyage to Vietnam in the 1960’s. My family visited him when the ship docked in New York Harbor. John took us on a tour.
Back at home in Ridgewood, the Gould’s youngest child, Doris Gould (Malaspina), born in 1929, was a high school student. She recalls that many teachers had left their jobs to fight overseas, and substitutes taught her classes. Doris followed in her sister Janet’s footsteps, volunteering in several organizations. She became president of the Junior Red Cross at Ridgewood High School.
The Junior Red Cross did many fundraising projects to help out during the war. They also “adopted” war orphans.
Local newspapers reported that Mabel Gould participated in Red Cross fundraisers during the war. Other members of the Gould and Black families also served in World War II. Several first cousins of Janet, Robert, John, and Doris were in the Army or Navy. Virginia Black Dietz, who lived her life in Watertown, CT, in a house next to her grandparents’ farm, joined the Women’s Army Corps as a clerk in Chicago starting in 1944.
Mabel’s older brother Ira Woodruff Black (1891-1966) was an Army colonel who fought in World War I. As World War II ended, he helped liberate Europe from the Nazis, retrieved artwork stolen by the Nazis, and was a chief economic adviser during Reconstruction. Ira earned many war medals, including the Bronze Star, from the U.S. and European countries. He is buried in Arlington Cemetery.
Like many of the Goulds in early Connecticut, Eber Gould Jr. (1831-1906) held elected positions and was a leader in his community, but his early years showed struggle and aspiration.
The son of Eber Gould (1797-1874), Eber Jr. was the brother of my third great grandfather Daniel Banks Gould. The brothers were born on the family’s farm in Weston. When Eber was in his early 20s, his parents, Eber and Miranda (Banks), moved to Walton, in upstate New York, where other families from the greater Fairfield area, including Eber’s sister, had migrated. The young men, Daniel and Eber, were left to fend for themselves.
While Daniel pursued banking and investment opportunities in Bridgeport, Eber had a more hard-scrabble life, it seems. He also moved to Bridgeport, the large city near Easton, but worked in factories. According to the U.S. Censuses of 1850 and 1860, Eber lived in boarding houses. In 1850, he was a machinist. In 1860, he worked in a shovel manufacturing factory. By then he was married.
By 1870, the census shows he was a farm agent in Fairfield. I don’t know when he was able to buy property, but in the June 1880 farm census, Eber was an agent for 90 acres of land at a $4,000 value in Fairfield. In that decade, he became more prosperous and moved to Easton, where he hired help for his dairy business.
Eber married twice to sisters in the Brown family from Weston. His first marriage to Sarah Jane Brown was in 1854. They had a daughter Amelia Jane “Jennie” Gould (1855- 1910). Sarah died in 1857 at the age of 24. Subsequently, Eber married Sarah’s younger sister, Amelia Sophia Brown (1838-1929). They had no more children. He lived in Fairfield before settling in nearby Easton (once a part of Fairfield).
The town of Easton borders the Aspetuck River. The land was rocky and not good for farming except for dairy. Eber became active in local politics as a Republican. He was elected an Easton selectman several times in the 1890s, and served on the Board of Health.
Eber wasn’t just a local politician. He represented Easton as a member of the House of Representatives in the Connecticut State Assembly in the 1890s. He sat on the Schools committee.
Eber was very much a part of his community. One newspaper reported him plowing the roads with horse teams after a late winter snowfall.
I haven’t pinned down the locations of his homes over his lifetime. According to local papers, Eber bought George Banks’ home in Easton in 1890 and continued to farm, raising milking cows and oxen. He built a new barn and porch. I’ve not located his farm, but his son-in-law Edgar Jennings later had a farm on Sport Hill Road. In the 1900 U.S. Census, the Jennings lived as tenants with Eber and his wife. One possibility is that his daughter’s family carried on his farm and that it was the same one Jennings owned on Sport Hill Road. Today there are several working farms on Sport Hill Road. Eber’s will stated that his land was bordered by Easton Turnpike South, which is also Sport Hill Road, and Fred Silliman’s property. More research is needed!
Eber died on 25 July 1906, following a long illness caused by the grip (influenza) and heart problems, according to local newspapers. He was buried in Easton’s (supposedly haunted) Union Cemetery, and his gravestone was carved by a man from Bridgeport two years later.
Eber’s life possessions, according to his will, included a cider mill, horse barn, lumber wagon, sleigh, grain cradle, 6 1/2 tons of hay in the cow barn, and one oxen yoke.
The Jersey Journal recently published a series “Remembering Saints of An Earlier Epidemic” by John Gomez about heroes of the Spanish Flu Epidemic in 1918. I discovered both my grandfather Dr. J. Howard Gould and his sister Marjorie Gould, both of whom lived in Bayonne, are mentioned in the series. Dr. Gould was one of the physicians who treated flu patients, and was “stricken” himself.
Marjorie is pictured below in a photograph of Red Cross ambulance volunteers. She died shortly after contracting the flu in October 2018. I’m proud to see both their names in print 102 years later.
My grandmother Mabel Black Gould (1893-1996) attended the small white-clapboard Nova Scotia School in Watertown CT as a young girl around the turn of the 20th century. Along with her siblings, she walked or road a horse from her home at Birch Farm on Northfield Road to the schoolhouse that was at the corner of Fern Hill Road and Route 6.
The tiny school house was just one room with wooden desks. It held 28 elementary school-aged students. Mabel was an avid reader but the school only had a few books, and they were kept on a high shelf. She read all the books many times, she told me. Later in life, she would go the Ridgewood Public Library every week to borrow books.
My mother recalls Mabel telling the story of her black stockings. Every day, she wore black stockings to school. One morning, her stockings were torn, and she had no others. So her mother, Grandma Black, used a black marker to hide the hole.
I don’t know the name of her teacher, but Miss Jessie Wheeler was teaching in the school house in 1898, around the time when Mabel might have started school at the age of five.
The school was active in the community of Watertown. As this undated newspaper clipping shows, the Nova Scotia teacher organized a picnic with a program that included recitations by Mabel and her siblings.
On another occasion, the whole school went to Mabel’s home at Birch Farm to have a picnic.
Mabel went on to graduate from high school in Watertown. In another post, I will tell you about Mabel’s teacher-training and career as a teacher before her marriage to J. Howard Gould.
The Nova Scotia School closed in 1929. In 2009, the building was moved 22 Deforest Street in the center Watertown. (Interestingly, DeForest is a family name. Mabel’s great-grandmother was Anna Eliza DeForest). The school house is maintained by the Watertown Historical Society.
My favorite great uncle was Aaron Treadwell Gould (1883-1973), named after his grandfather and uncle, both Aaron Treadwell. I would often see him at my grandparents’ house at 92 Monte Vista Avenue in Ridgewood. He lived in the village and came over to join us in a game of croquet on the back lawn followed by lemonade on the porch. With snow white hair and twinkling blue eyes, Aaron was quiet and soft-spoken, always interested in what others had to say, and had a quick smile.
Born in Bayonne, he was one of seven children of George Henry and Selina (Treadwell) Gould. He grew up in a large house on Avenue C. His father was a banker and his mother was active in the Methodist Church up the street.
The family valued education, because Aaron and several siblings attended The Hasbrouk Institute in Jersey City, a challenging private school.
My mother gave me several medals that Aaron earned at The Hasbrouk Institute, class of 1898. An article in the Jersey City News on 14 June 1898, reported he had the top grades in his graduating class.
Aaron graduated from Amherst College in Massachusetts in 1903. He was a member of the Chi Psi fraternity.
After graduation, he returned to Bayonne. As the Chi PSi Purple and Gold Vol 19 reports: “Aaron T. Gould is in the grocery business in Bayonne NJ.”
Soon he joined his father in banking. Aaron worked as assistant treasurer at the Fifth Ward Savings Bank, in Jersey City. Aaron took over his father’s position as treasurer after his death in 1940.
On Sept. 18 1909, he married Dorothea Lathbury (1885-1955) in East Norwich, Long Island. They had met in Bayonne, where Dorothea was a teacher. Her adoptive father, Reverend Albert Lathbury, married them in the Wesley Methodist Episcopal Church. According to the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 20 Sep. 1909, the newlyweds took the evening train to Washington DC for a honeymoon.
The couple lived in Bayonne, and then settled at 35 Woodside Avenue in Ridgewood, NJ, in 1930. They had one daughter, Louise Gould Gray. Louise would go on to graduate from Mount Holyoke College, work in publishing in New York City, and then follow the family footsteps to become a banker in NJ.
Dorothea died in 1955. Aaron moved into the nice yellow house at 386 Glenwood Road with Louise and her husband, Bill Gray.
But during the 1940s and 1950s, he was a leader in the men’s club at the Westside Presbyterian Church in Ridgewood, also attended by his brother J.H. Gould’s family. Aaron and his family sometimes summered in Asbury Park.
For several years, after Louise left home, Aaron and Dorothea wintered in Manhattan. The winter of 1940, they spent at the Gramercy Park Hotel, an elegant building in the heart of the city. When the 1940 census takers came knocking, Aaron was listed as a tenant at the hotel.
I imagine he and Dorothea had a wonderful winter in the city.
This beautiful wooden wedding box was made by brothers William “Henry” and George Burr as a wedding gift for their older sister, Julia Burr Gould (1821-1907), my second great grandmother. Handmade wedding boxes were a popular tradition in the mid-19th century.
The box is sturdy and well put together. The dark wood is engraved with Julia’s initials “J B.” Graceful designs decorate the top and sides.
Inside the box is a photograph of one of the brothers, “Uncle Henry Burr,” a dark-haired young man.
Julia, who grew up in Redding Ridge CT, married Daniel B. Gould (1818-1858), who was born in Fairfield, the son of a farmer. The Bridgeport newspaper, The Republican Farmer, posted a brief notice on Oct. 10, 1848. Apparently Julia had been living across the Long Island Sound in Williamsburg (Brooklyn) NY at the time.
Daniel started off in the carriage making business in Bridgeport. Julia and Daniel had their only child, George Henry (named after her two brothers), in 1849. The 1850 census shows that George and Henry, then age 19 and 21, lived with Julia and Daniel in Bridgeport. Henry worked in carriage manufacturing and George was a painter.
Later, Henry Burr married and returned to Redding Ridge, where he owned Ridgeside Farm (or Ridge Side Farm). Ads for farm produce can be found in the local newspaper, The Newtown Bee, in the 1890s.
He also managed a large cattle and oxen stock. On Jan. 5, 1893, he posted a notice in “Country Gentleman” magazine that he was selling off his cattle “as I can no longer care for them.” The farmhouse still stands at 102 Black Rock Turnpike and was recently on the market. .
Three of Henry’s children died of typhoid fever within days of each other in January 1877. Only one of his children, Marcus Burr, survived into adulthood.
George Burr (1829-1915) moved to New York City in the 1870s. He married three times and had five children, settling in Maspeth, Long Island. He worked in manufacturing and was active in civic life. On his death, the local Brooklyn Times Union, June 3, 1915, recounted his contributions. “Mr Burr took an active interest in politics being prominently identified with the Republican Party. He at one time filled the position of Justice of the Peace in the old town of Newtown. He was for a number of years Tax Collector for School District 5 and also was a charter member of Hook and Ladder Co 5 of the old Volunteer fire dept. He was a member of Elmhurst (Newtown) Presbyterian Church and highly esteemed throughout the community where he lived. His many friends will greatly deplore his death and his familure face will be missed by everyone.”
As for my great great grandmother, Julia, her husband Daniel became an investor and banker in Bridgeport. They lived in a house in the center of the city, but he must have taken some financial risks. When he died young, at the age of 39, she was left bankrupt and the house and contents, including a piano, were put up for sale. With her child, George, she returned to her parents’ house in Redding.
Julia never remarried. She spent her final days in her son George’s home in Bayonne NJ, where she died at 85 on January 21, 1907. Her wedding box became a family treasure, carefully kept for over 100 years. I’m still looking for a photograph of Julia Burr Gould.
The last time I saw my great uncle, Russell Lowell Gould, was in the early 1980s. He was living in a cottage on a hill along a busy road in Bridgewater, CT. The son of George and Lina Gould, he was in his nineties and a widower, and a housekeeper was taking care of him. I stopped by with my mother, grandmother, and cousin, while on a day trip to Watertown. We didn’t stay long. Recently I asked my mother, his niece, what Russell was like, and she said he was quiet and a little stern, but also very nice.
My favorite picture of him is with his younger sister Marjorie in the 1910s. He doesn’t seem at all stern. Growing up in Bayonne NJ, he had a busy social life, according to local newspapers that covered events like house parties, school events, and visits from friends and family. According to “The Heritage of Industrial Psychology,” by Leonard Ferguson, a book about his future field: “As would seem natural, Gould worked during summers and vacation periods and after school hours in his father’s bank.”
Russell graduated from Bayonne High School in 1909 and attended Wesleyan University like his brother, J. Howard and uncle Aaron Treadwell. He went on to Columbia University, where he earned an M.A. degree in Psychology in 1916. While a student, he was a fellow at the Bureau of Salesmanship Research at Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh. His specialty was industrial psychology.
He worked in Pittsburgh as a researcher in psychology for Carnegie Tech for a short time, before joining in the Army on 20 Nov. 1917. He was the only one of four brothers to serve in World War I.
He entered as a private and left as a sergeant. In this photo, he is visiting his family in Bayonne. The girl is probably his niece Louise Gould.
While he was away, his sister Marjorie died in the flu epidemic of 1918. Meanwhile, Russell’s unit, Headquarters Detachment Third Division, was in the thick of the war in France. According to Wikia.org: “At midnight on 14 July 1918, the division earned lasting distinction. Engaged in the Aisne-Marne Offensive as a member of the American Expeditionary Force to Europe, the division was protecting Paris with a position on the banks of the Marne River. The 7th Machine Gun Battalion of the 3rd Division rushed to Château-Thierry amid retreating French troops and held the Germans back at the Marne River. While surrounding units retreated, the 3rd Infantry Division, including the 30th and 38th Infantry Regiments, remained rock solid and earned its reputation in the Second Battle of the Marne as the “Rock of the Marne”.” His unit suffered over 3,000 casualties.
Russell sailed from Brest, France on 14 August 1919 to return home. He married Winifred Gertrude Sills on 3 May 1925. They lived in Westchester County, settling in Larchmont.
By 1940, according to the U.S. Census, Russell was a trust investor. On his 1942 draft registration card, his employer is the City Bank Farmers Trust Company located in a landmark Art Deco building in Manhattan.
In his later years, Russell moved to Bridgewater, CT, where he joined St. Mark’s Episcopal Church and served as the church’s auditor. He was active in other church affairs. He visited family, including a trip to California in 1967.
Russell died at the age of 97. He and Winifred are buried with her family in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx.